Sunday, June 7, 2020

Injuries in Cricket - Free Essay Example

An Audit of Injuries in Cricket in Scotland in the 2008 Season Abstract Cricket is a popular sport played and followed by millions around the globe. It is a relatively non contact sport with a low to moderate risk of injury. However, in the last decade, the incidence of injury has been shown to be on the rise. This is possibly due to increase in workload for the modern cricketer. Aim of the study The aim of the study was to audit the prevalence and patterns of injuries in cricket in Scotland over a complete season. A study of this nature has never been undertaken in Scotland. This study will act as pilot study for a long term injury surveillance program in Scottish cricket. Cricket researchers have long been in favour of a world cricket injury surveillance report. This study, we reckon, will contribute to such a report when undertaken. Methods A questionnaire was sent to Cricket Scotland who in turn engaged 150 professional cricket players from the Scottish international team, SNCL Premier League, SNCL division I and division II. Involvement of the team coaches through the initiative of Cricket Scotland was sought to increase the compliance for return of the questionnaire. Results We received feedback from 26 of the 150 players that we approached. The numbers of injuries reported throughout the season were 18. An increased prevalence of injuries was apparent at the start of the season with 27% of all injuries occurring in April. Of all the players, 42% suffered injuries at some point of time during the season. Most of the injuries (66%) occurred in match situations. Acute injuries accounted for 60% of the. As expected, bowling was responsible for 36.84% of injuries while fielding caused 52.36% of injuries. Upper limb injuries contributed to 57.89% of the injuries. Finger injuries in the form of fractures or contusions had a prevalence rate of 15.29%. Lower limb injuries accounted for 31.58% of all injuries with knee and shin stress fracture being more common. Hamstring injuries having prevalence rate 16.67%. During the entire season, there was not a single case of head, neck or face injury. Midsection injuries accounted for 10.53 % of injuries with 5.26% prevalence rate for side or abdominal muscle strain. 35.29% of injuries took more than 6 weeks to heal enough for the player to participate in a match again, while almost half of the injured players took more than 4 weeks to recover from injury. Only 8.33% of international cricketers had access to a medical support team while 75% of players did not have injury advice at all. At the domestic level, medical support as well as provision of sports injury advice was lacking for 100% of players. Likewise, none of the clubs we came across had implemented injury data collection or monitoring program. Discussion The injury patterns and prevalence rates identified showed similarities to previous studies, especially for lower limb and fingers injuries. Bowling and fielding were recognised as major contributors for injury. The time lost due to injury as shown in the study is a concern. It is interesting to note that none of the domestic players had access to medical back up in the form of a doctor or a physiotherapist. Even at the international level only one player had a sports doctor to attend to his injuries. In summary, we identified a need for the provision of medical support to players for helping them to realise their full potential. A national database for cricket injuries within the confines of the Scottish government similar to the ACC or the SMAGG should be implemented. The ICC should look to help full as well as associate members in setting up injury prevention programs. It should allocate funds and provide expertise in the form trained personnel for the same. Appointment of injury statisticians for recording of injury data in every first class, one day or twenty 20 match should be looked at. At the end of every match an injury report should be sent to the team management, the SNCL which in turn will pass it on to the ICC. This collection of data should be anonymised as much as possible to help safeguard players interests. 1. Introduction Cricket is a popular sport played and followed by millions around the globe. It is a relatively non contact sport with a low to moderate risk of injury as compared to sports like hockey or football.1;2 However, in the last decade, the incidence of injury has been shown to be on the rise.3 This is possibly due to increase in workload for the modern cricketer. Intense competition, higher levels of fitness and skills required and increase in the number of matches played throughout the season has resulted in this trend. Furthermore, pressures of international travel and acclimitisation to foreign playing conditions in a matter of days have added to the stress. Although the popularity of cricket is on the rise, worldwide research into injuries has been dismal. The International Cricket Council (ICC), which governs the game, boasts a membership of 104 countries including 10 full, 34 associate and 60 affiliate members. However, most of the statistical data on incidence and prevalence of injuries comes from just four countries, namely, Australia, South Africa, England and the West Indies. Australia was the first country to introduce long term injury surveillance in professional cricket in the summer of 1998-99.2 The Sports Science Medicine Advisory Group (SSMAG) set up by Cricket Australia is responsible for the collection and maintenance of a long term injury database.3 Recently, the English and the South African Boards have set up their own injury surveillance programs. In New Zealand, the Accident Compensation Corporation is responsible for recording all sporting injuries. The rest of the test playing nations, however, along with the associate members of the ICC do not have programs implemented to record cricketing injuries. Although cricket has a vast following in the subcontinent, availability of statistical data regarding injuries is lacking. Similarly, a study of the nature and prevalence of injuries in cricket has never been undertaken in Scotland. In the backdrop of researchers pushing for a world cricket injury report, all test playing and associate member countries should set up injury surveillance programs to identify patterns along with prevalence and incidence of injuries. This would enable comparisons of data across varying sets of playing conditions prevailing in different countries. 2. Injuries in Cricket Although cricket is a non contact sport, injuries are quite common, especially in fast bowlers.4-7 Some instances of death due to cricket have also been documented in literature.8 Importance of Injury Surveillance Long term injury surveillance in sport is the basis for prevention of injuries. Identification of causes with subsequent designing and implementation of interventions forms the sequence of prevention of injuries.9 Surveillance of injuries across nations has however proved to be more difficult than previously thought. Over the years, different studies have sought to define injury in cricket and devise methods for injury surveillance.10-14 However, disparity in the definitions used by different researchers has been a problem in comparing injury rates from across the world. 3;12;15 Orchard et al. defined injury in cricket as any injury or medical condition that either (a) prevents a player from being fully available for selection for a major match or (b) during a major match, causes a player to be unable to bat, bowl or keep wickets when required by either the rules or the teams captain 3;12.whereas,Leary et al. defined injury in cricket as an event which caused a player to seek medical attention.10 Overall Incidence of Injuries Different studies report injury incidence in cricket varying from 2.6 to 333/ 10,000 player hours.1;2;16;17 Of all the Accident and Emergency department presentations in Australia, 8% cases were cricket related injuries, making cricket the 5th commonest injury prone sport in Australia.2 In South Africa, Stretch found that there was an injury incidence per player of 1.6 to 1.91 per season; also 49% of all players get injured sometime throughout a season.13 Leary et. al. in their 10 year study of professional English county cricketers found the acute injury incidence to be 57.4 per 1000 days of cricket.10 Injuries by anatomical site Lower limb injuries are the most common with an incidence of 45% to 49.8% where as trunk (20-32.6%) and upper limb (18.9 to 29 %) were the other sites commonly involved.7;10;13 The tissues mostly involved are muscles and other soft tissues (41.0%), joints (22.2%), tendons (13.2%), and ligaments (6.2%).7 Muscle strains were found to be most common. Of the lower limb injuries, hamstring injuries were reported to be most common by Orchard et al (11% of all injuries).2 Most of these were in the form of muscle strains and tears especially in bowlers and fielders.18 Knee injuries, usually comprise of joint sprains (27.6%), tendonitis (26.5%) and contusions (16.3%).10 Orchard et al reported that knee ligament injuries were uncommon in cricket. An interesting observation was that cricketers were more likely to suffer from knee ligament injuries during the game of football that cricketers play as a form of pre-match warming up or cross training. Groin injuries in bowlers (8% of all injuries in bowlers) and batsmen (9% of all injuries in batsmen) had an overall incidence of 7%. 2 Stress fractures of the tibia, fibula and foot, and ankle sprains occurred mostly in fast bowlers and had a combined incidence of 6% in the study conducted by Orchard et al.2 Upper limb injuries make up 19.8% to 34.1% of all injuries in cricket.2;17;18 Most of these are finger injuries due to ball impact occurring during fielding or batting.1;7;18;19 Contusions account for a major share of finger injuries (40%) while fractures/dislocations (28.9%) and joint sprains (23%) are the other finger injuries commonly encountered.10 Although, most of the finger injuries in cricket have a satisfactory treatment outcome, cricketers report a residual component of occasional pain or minor swelling and / or deformity.19 Most of the wicket keepers have been known to carry finger injuries but rarely report them for the fear of being made to miss the match. Shoulder injuries usually occur in fielders and bowlers while batsmen and wicket keepers are characteristically spared.10;18 Shoulder tendon injuries were reported to comprise of 6% of all injuries by Orchard et al. 2, Supraspinatus tendon was seen to be mostly affected. Incidence of shoulder dislocation or subluxation was shown to be low 1%. Upper limb lacerations or fractures were reported to have a low incidence and occurred mostly in batsmen.2 Side strain occurring on the non dominant arm in bowlers is quite notorious to heal.2 Incidence of side or abdominal muscle strain is 9% of all injuries; 1% of all cricket injuries are side strains due to a stress or traumatic fracture of the rib.2 The overall incidence of back and trunk injuries accounted was 18% to 33% of all injuries.7;16-18 Fast bowlers were found to be at particular risk of developing lower back injury.4;20-24 So much so that Foster et al. and Bell have likened the injuries in fast bowlers to en epidemic.4;25 The incidence for head, neck and face injuries vary from 5% to 25 % usually resulting from impact of the cricket ball causing lacerations or contusions and rarely concussions.1;2;13;16-18 Weightman and Brown reported a quarter of cricket injuries to be concussions due to a ball impact on the head.1 This was probably due to the fact that use of helmets in cricket was not in fashion when the study was conducted. Of the cervical spine injuries, 63.6% were in the form of sprains or strains resulting from batting for long periods of time.7 Jones and Tullo reported an incidence of 9% for eye injuries in sports in the UK.26 Although, eye injuries in cricket are rare, some studies have reported a few cases associated with cricket.27;28 These are usually more severe. Seasonal Variation of injuries Injuries in cricket are shown to occur more at the start of the season and then at the end of the season.7;10 The highest incidence number of injuries mostly muscle, tendon and ligament injuries occur at the start of the season (April-27.3%).10 While injuries like fractures or dislocations occur with the same frequency throughout the season. Stretch reported a similar incidence of higher injuries at the start of the season (32.3%) compared to than mid-season (21.7%) or towards the end (12.5%) or offseason (12.5%).18 Role performed in the team Stretch reported an injury incidence according to activity as follows: bowling (41.3%), fielding and wicket keeping (28.6%), and batting (17.1%).18 A study by Orchard et al, however reports that wicketkeepers had the lowest injury incidence (2%) probably because of minimal sprinting, throwing or bowling.2 Bowlers usually sustained lower limb or back injuries while fielders and wicket keepers usually suffered upper limb (42.9%) or lower limb injuries (40.6%). Batsman on the other hand suffered mainly lower limb injuries (54.4%). Delivery and follow through of the fast bowler (25.6%), overuse (18.3%), and fielding (21.4%) were the main mechanisms of injury.18 Age Incidence Young fast bowlers tend to get injured more often.7;13;14;18 Also the incidence of overuse injuries in cricketers in the age group of 19-24 years tends to be higher than their older counterparts.7 An important observation in a study by Stretch is that all 14 stress fractures occurred in young cricketers with 13 of them due to bowling.7 Chronicity of injury Acute injuries account for 64.8% of all injuries while 16.6% are chronic and 25.4% of the injuries are of acute on chronic nature. Majority of injuries are first time injuries (64.5%) while recurrent injuries from the previous season account for 22.8% of injuries.13 Recovery time of injuries In a study by Stretch, 47.8% of injured players were able to return to play within a week while 28.4% took 3 week. However, 23.8% of the players were not able to train or play matches even more than 3 weeks after the incidence.7 3.0 Methodolgy 3.1 Aim of the Study The aim of the study was to audit the prevalence and patterns of injuries occurring in cricket in Scotland over a complete season. A study of this nature has never been undertaken in Scotland. This study will act as pilot study for a long term injury surveillance program in Scottish cricket. Cricket researchers have long been in favour of a world cricket injury surveillance report. This study, we reckon, will contribute to such a report, if and when it is undertaken. 3.2 Study design The study was a retrospective, questionnaire based study carried out online with the support of Cricket Scotland. The involvement of Cricket Scotland, the national governing body for the sport in Scotland, we hoped, would increase the response rate for the questionnaires and thus the reliability of the audit. We feared that compliance would be an issue. However, we were hopeful that involvement of the club coaches via the governing body for cricket in Scotland would maximise the return rate. The first class structure for cricket in Scotland, Scottish National Cricket League (SNCL) is divided into three levels, the SNCL Premiere League, the SNCL division I and the SNCL division II. Each of these levels consists of 10 teams, playing each other home and away. In addition, there is an under 19s Scottish cricket team. Each of the first class teams plays an extra game with the under 19s, making a total of 19 matches over the season for each team. Cricket Scotland distributed the questionnaire to 150 elite cricketers from the international team as well as those in the three divisions of the SNCL. The audit assessed areas such as nature of injury, body part affected, mechanism of injury, recovery time, etc as well as the provision of medical support at the club (see attached questionnaire). Data was recorded from the feedback received from the questionnaire. Data analysis was done on a prevalence percentage basis and comparisons made with the limited existing studies. 3.3 Ethical Approval Ethical approval for undertaking this study was sought from and granted by the Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee for Non Clinical Research involving Human Subjects, University of Glasgow, Scotland. 3.4 Subjects The subjects involved in the study were 150 elite cricket players from the Scottish national team and clubs in the top 3 divisions of the Scottish National Cricket league (SNCL). 3.5 Data Analysis Minitab 15.1 was used to carry out statistical analysis whereas Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to provide graphical analysis of the data. Also, for comparison with the existing data, literature searches were carried out using Reference Manager Professional Network Edition 12.0. The databases used were Pubmed and ISI Web of Knowledge for the period of 1970 to 2009 with key words for search being cricket, injury, surveillance, patterns, incidence, and prevalence. The review considered all papers up to May 2009 relevant to definition, incidence, prevalence, causes and prevention of injuries in cricket. 4.0 Results During the study, Cricket Scotland distributed the questionnaires to 150 cricket players from the international team and the three divisions of the SNCL. To improve the response rate, the coaches were instructed get the players to fill in the questionnaires. We received feedback from 26 of the 150 players that we approached. Of these, almost 77% were of current international status with 85% having represented Scotland at some point in their careers. In the SNCL, 73.08% of all players represent the premier division, 19.23% division 1 while only one player each featured in division 2 and domestic matches outside the SNCL. 73% of the players that responded were in the age group of 19-25 while 15.38% were in the under 19 age group of and 12% in the over 24 age group. Batsmen comprised of 35% of players while bowlers and all-rounders formed a major share of 64%. Only one wicketkeeper featured in the study. The percentage of players who appeared in more than 30 matches over the season was 46% while 23% played between 11-30 matches. The numbers of injuries reported throughout the season were 18. An increased prevalence of injuries was apparent at the start of the season with 27% of all injuries occurring in April. This then leveled off as the season progressed. Of all the players, 42% suffered injuries at some point of time during the season. Most of the injuries (66%) occurred in match situations. Acute injuries accounted for 60% of the injuries while acute or gradual recurrence of a previous injury was responsible for 35% of the cases. As expected, bowling was responsible for 36.84% of injuries while fielding (along with catching and throwing) caused 52.36% of injuries with throwing alone was responsible for 10% of all injuries. Regional Distribution of injuries Upper limb injuries contributed to 57.89% of the injuries, with shoulder tendon injury accounting for 27.27% of all upper limb and 15.79% of all injuries. Injuries to the fingers in the form of fractures or contusions had a prevalence rate of 15.29% for all injuries and 27.27% of all upper limb injuries. Lower limb injuries accounted for 31.58% of all injuries with knee and shin stress fracture being more common. Hamstring injuries having prevalence rate 16.67%. During the entire season, there was not a single case of head, neck or face injury. Midsection injuries accounted for 10.53 % of injuries with 5.26% prevalence rate for side or abdominal muscle strain. 35.29% of injuries took more than 6 weeks to heal enough for the player to participate in a match again, while almost half of the injured players took more than 4 weeks to recover from injury. Injury Advice and Surveillance In our analysis we found that only 8.33% of international cricketers had any access to a medical support team in the form of a physiotherapist while 75% of players at did not have injury advice at all. Also, of all the players, only 7.69% had some sort of injury prevention advice at their club. At the domestic level, provision of sports injury advice as well as medical support was lacking for 100% of players. Likewise, none of the clubs have implemented injury data collection or monitoring program. Table I. Type of injuries in the 2008 season Type of Injury International SNCL (domestic) Head / Face Fractures Eyes Other Neck Sprains Other Shoulder Tendon / muscle Dislocation / subluxation Arm / Elbow / Forearm Fracture Other Wrist / Palm Dislocation/Fracture Split webbing Other Fingers Fractures Other Trunk Abd/Side strain Other Back Lumbar stress fracture Other Groin/Hip Ham / Quad Knee Ligament Other Shin /Ankle / Foot Stress fracture Sprains Other 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Total 13 5 5.0 Discussion The prevalence of injuries in Scottish cricket players both international and domestic over a season was ascertained in this study. Players in Scotland do not feature in as many matches over a season as players from places like Australia or India. As such, injury rates have not reached alarming proportions but the injury patterns and prevalence rates do show some similarities. The distribution of injuries according to anatomical site is similar to other studies, especially prevalence rate for lower limb fingers injuries. Bowling and fielding were recognised as major contributors for injury. Seasonal variations are also similar to a previous English study.10 The time lost due to injury as shown in the study is a concern. Proper injury prevention advice can help in avoiding injuries (most notable being those due to bowling). It is interesting to note that none of the domestic players had access to medical back up in the form of a doctor or a physiotherapist. Even at the international level only one player had a sports doctor to attend to his injuries. In summary, we identified a need for the provision of medical support to players for helping them to realise their full potential. An injury free player is more likely to perform to the best of his ability ensuring good performance of the team. A successful team in turn can attract sponsors thereby further enhancing the injury aspect of the game. A national database for cricket injuries within the confines of the Scottish government similar to the ACC or the SMAGG should be implemented. The ICC should look to help full as well as associate members in setting up injury prevention programs. The ICC should allocate funds and provide expertise in the form trained personnel for the same. Appointment of injury statisticians for recording of injury data in every first class, one day or twenty 20 match should be looked at. At the end of every match an injury report should be sent to the team management, the SNCL which in turn will pass it on to the ICC. This collection of data should be anonymised as much as possible to help safeguard players interests. 6.0 Methodological Limitations 6.1 Subjects The response we got for the questionnaire was not as good as expected. Unforeseen logistics and strategic problems due to prior commitment of the Scottish international team due to the World twenty 20 Cup and the domestic teams in the being busy in the final stages of the season hampered the feedback from the players. The selection of players from the elite level did serve the purpose of determining injury prevalence at the highest level. However, patterns of injury at the school and junior level need to be identified as well. 6.2 Procedural Since it was a retrospective study, the authenticity of injuries reported form memory by the players can be questioned. Injuries should ideally have been diagnosed and recorded by professional medical personnel like a physiotherapist or a sports doctor. Furthermore, this study looked into injuries over just one season. Having said so, this study can prove to be a pilot project on which future research can be based. 6.3 Statistical and Analytical We calculated prevalence of the different types of injuries. However, the study did not look into the incidence rates of different injuries. The incidence rates along with prevalence rates as done by some previous studies would have been a better reflection of injuries affecting professional cricketers in Scotland. 7.0 Future Research In the future, researchers should ideally look to conduct a prospective study over a number of years to identify the consistent injury patterns. Also, diagnosis and recording of injuries by professional medical staff with maintainence of an nationwide epidemiological injury database should be aimed at. Also, impact of provision medical support staff on improved performance of the players and the team as a whole needs to be looked into. 8.0 Reference List (1) Weightman D, Browne RC. Injuries in Eleven Selected Sports. Br J Sports Med 1975; 9(3):136-141. (2) Orchard J, James T, Alcott E, Carter S, Farhart P. Injuries in Australian cricket at first class level 1995/1996 to 2000/2001. Br J Sports Med 2002; 36(4):270-274. (3) Orchard JW, James T, Portus MR. Injuries to elite male cricketers in Australia over a 10-year period. J Sci Med Sport 2006; 9(6):459-467. (4) Foster D, John D, Elliott B, Ackland T, Fitch K. Back injuries to fast bowlers in cricket: a prospective study. Br J Sports Med 1989; 23(3):150-154. (5) Hardcastle P, Annear P, Foster DH, Chakera TM, McCormick C, Khangure M et al. Spinal abnormalities in young fast bowlers. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992; 74(3):421-425. (6) Hardcastle PH. Repair of spondylolysis in young fast bowlers. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1993; 75(3):398-402. (7) Stretch RA. Cricket injuries: a longitudinal study of the nature of injuries to South African cricketers. Br J Sports Med 2003; 37(3):250-253. (8) Brasch R. How did sports begin? Sydney: Camberwell: Longman; 1971. (9) Van MW, Hlobil H, Kemper HCG. Incidence Severity Aetiology and Prevention of Sports Injuries A Review of Concepts. Sports Medicine 1992; 14(2):82-99. (10) Leary T, White JA. Acute injury incidence in professional county club cricket players (1985-1995). Br J Sports Med 2000; 34(2):145-147. (11) Mitchell R, Hayen A. Defining a cricket injury. J Sci Med Sport 2005; 8(3):357-358. (12) Orchard J, Newman D, Stretch R, Frost W, Mansingh A, Leipus A. Methods for injury surveillance in international cricket. J Sci Med Sport 2005; 8(1):1-14. (13) Stretch RA. The incidence and nature of injuries in first-league and provincial cricketers. S Afr Med J 1993; 83(5):339-342. (14) Stretch RA. The seasonal incidence and nature of injuries in schoolboy cricketers. S Afr Med J 1995; 85(11):1182-1184. (15) Finch CF, Elliott BC, McGrath AC. Measures to prevent cricket injuries: an overview. Sports Med 1999; 28(4):263-272. (16) Corrigan AB. Cricket injuries. Aust Fam Physician 1984; 13(8):558-9, 562. (17) Crisp T. Cricket: fast bowlers back and throwers shoulder. Practitioner 1989; 233(1469):790-792. (18) Stretch RA. Incidence and nature of epidemiological injuries to elite South African cricket players. S Afr Med J 2001; 91(4):336-339. (19) Belliappa PP, Barton NJ. Hand injuries in cricketers. J Hand Surg Br 1991; 16(2):212-214. (20) Bartlett RM, Stockill NP, Elliott BC, Burnett AF. The biomechanics of fast bowling in mens cricket: a review. J Sports Sci 1996; 14(5):403-424. (21) Bell PA. Spondylolysis in fast bowlers: principles of prevention and a survey of awareness among cricket coaches. Br J Sports Med 1992; 26(4):273-275. (22) Dennis R, Farhart P, Goumas C, Orchard J. Bowling workload and the risk of injury in elite cricket fast bowlers. J Sci Med Sport 2003; 6(3):359-367. (23) Dennis R, Farhart P, Clements M, Ledwidge H. The relationship between fast bowling workload and injury in first-class cricketers: a pilot study. J Sci Med Sport 2004; 7(2):232-236. (24) Engstrom CM, Walker DG. Pars interarticularis stress lesions in the lumbar spine of cricket fast bowlers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39(1):28-33. (25) Bell P. Cricket: injury in long trousers. Br J Sports Med 1999; 33(3):151-152. (26) Jones NP, Tullo AB. Severe eye injuries in cricket. Br J Sports Med 1986; 20(4):178-179. (27) Abedin A, Chen HC. An uncommonly serious case of an uncommon sport injury. Br J Sports Med 2005; 39(8):e33. (28) Aburn N. Eye injuries in indoor cricket at Wellington Hospital: a survey January 1987 to June 1989. N Z Med J 1990; 103(898):454-456. Cover Letter for the Questionnaire An Audit of Injuries in Cricket in Scotland in the 2008 Season. With increased participation in cricket in Scotland, sports doctors and physiotherapists have become aware of a corresponding increase in cricket related injuries. Also, researchers worldwide have felt the need for a global injury incidence report to identify risk factors for subsequent designing and implementation of interventions for prevention of injuries. Some data regarding injuries in cricket is available from Australia, South Africa, England and the West Indies. However, epidemiological collection of data of injuries from the rest of the world is dismal, to say the least. In Scotland as well, there has never been any audit of injuries in cricket, time lost due to injuries, implementation of injury prevention program and provision of medical support to players. This audit aims to look at the type and prevalence of injuries that occurred over the 2008 season in cricket in Scotland, allowing an insight into the mechanisms of injury in cricket. We hope that this will assist the development of medical support and injury prevention programmes. This study would also contribute to a World Injury Incidence Report to be undertaken in the near future. This audit is being conducted by the Department of Sport Exercise Medicine, University of Glasgow with the support of Cricket Scotland. We are grateful for your valuable time spent in answering the questionnaire. If you have any questions regarding the study or the questionnaire please do not hesitate to contact either: Questionnaire Do you play international cricket? Yes, Currently Previously No Please indicate the level of domestic cricket that you play in. SNCL Premier SNCL Div 1 SNCL Div 2 Other Does your club provide access to sports injury advice and treatment? Yes No not sure If yes, who provides this support? Doctor Physiotherapist Sports Therapist Other Are you aware of an injury prevention program being followed at your club? Yes No not sure How old are you? 12-18 y 19-24 y 25-29 y 29 y What role do you perform in the team? Batsman Bowler All Rounder WKeeper Please specify the number of matches you played in the 2008 season. International Club Other Please specify the number of matches played by your club throughout the 2008 season. (Please put in an appropriate number in the box) Please specify the total number of players in your club squad at the start of the 2008 season. (Please put in an appropriate number in the box) Did you suffer any injuries during the 2008 season? Yes No If the answer to the above question is No, that is the end of the questionnaire. Thank you for your help. If however, the answer is Yes, please go to the next question Please specify the total number of injuries that you suffered in 2008. (For the purpose of this questionnaire we define an injury as the presence of pain or discomfort which prevented you from training or playing in the next match.) The rest of the questionnaire is related to the injuries you sustained during the 2008 season. Please fill in questions 1-9 for EACH of the injuries you reported in the question above. We have copied questions 1-9 five times to allow you to report up to 5 injuries. If you have had more than 5 injuries, please add the details at the end of the questionnaire. INJURY 1 1. Please tick the most appropriate box to describe this injury. Head, neck or face Fractured facial bones Eye injury Cut Other Neck Injury Muscle injury Other Shoulder Muscle/tendon injury Dislocation / subluxation Other Elbow/arm Fracture Muscle injury Other Wrist palm Dislocation / fracture Split webbing Other Thumb Injury Dislocation / fracture Other Fingers Fracture Other Trunk Abdominal /side strain Other Back Lumbar spine stress fracture Other Groin, hip or buttock injury Muscle injury Other Thigh muscle injury Hamstring muscle injury Calf muscle strain Knee Bony injury Cartilage injury Other Shin and foot Stress fracture Other Other injury not noted above (please specify injury site) 2. Have you injured this body part before? Yes No 3. What best describes the onset of this injury. Contact/sudden onset of new injury Gradual onset of new injury Sudden reoccurrence of previous injury Gradual reoccurrence of pervious injury 4. How did this injury occur? Batting Running between wickets Bowling Fielding Catching Throwing Wicket keeping 5. Where did this injury occur? Match Nets Warm up stretches General training (cross) If other, please specify (E.G. Sports other than cricket, not related to sports, work related etc) 6. What month of the season did this injury occur in? Apr-2008 May-2008 Jun-2008 Jul-2008 Aug-2008 Sep-2008 Out of season 7. How many matches did you miss as a result of this injury? None 1 3 4 6 6 8. How long did it take before you were able to return to training after this training? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks 9. How long did it take before you were able to return to playing after this injury? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks INJURY 2 1. Please tick the most appropriate box to describe this injury. Matriculation No. 0809366H Head, neck or face Fractured facial bones Eye injury Cut Other Neck Injury Muscle injury Other Shoulder Muscle/tendon injury Dislocation / subluxation Other Elbow/arm Fracture Muscle injury Other Wrist palm Dislocation / fracture Split webbing Other Thumb Injury Dislocation / fracture Other Fingers Fracture Other Trunk Abdominal /side strain Other Back Lumbar spine stress fracture Other Groin, hip or buttock injury Muscle injury Other Thigh muscle injury Hamstring muscle injury Calf muscle strain Knee Bony injury Cartilage injury Other Shin and foot Stress fracture Other Other injury not noted above (please specify injury site) 2. Have you injured this body part before? Yes No 3. What best describes the onset of this injury. Contact/sudden onset of new injury Gradual onset of new injury Sudden reoccurrence of previous injury Gradual reoccurrence of pervious injury 4. How did this injury occur? Batting Running between wickets Bowling Fielding Catching Throwing Wicket keeping 5. Where did this injury occur? Match Nets Warm up stretches General training (cross) If other, please specify (E.G. Sports other than cricket, not related to sports, work related etc) 6. What month of the season did this injury occur in? Apr-2008 May-2008 Jun-2008 Jul-2008 Aug-2008 Sep-2008 Out of season 7. How many matches did you miss as a result of this injury? None 1 3 4 6 6 8. How long did it take before you were able to return to training after this training? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks 9. How long did it take before you were able to return to playing after this injury? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks INJURY 3 1. Please tick the most appropriate box to describe this injury. Head, neck or face Fractured facial bones Eye injury Cut Other Neck Injury Muscle injury Other Shoulder Muscle/tendon injury Dislocation / subluxation Other Elbow/arm Fracture Muscle injury Other Wrist palm Dislocation / fracture Split webbing Other Thumb Injury Dislocation / fracture Other Fingers Fracture Other Trunk Abdominal /side strain Other Back Lumbar spine stress fracture Other Groin, hip or buttock injury Muscle injury Other Thigh muscle injury Hamstring muscle injury Calf muscle strain Knee Bony injury Cartilage injury Other Shin and foot Stress fracture Other Other injury not noted above (please specify injury site) 2. Have you injured this body part before? Yes No 3. What best describes the onset of this injury. Contact/sudden onset of new injury Gradual onset of new injury Sudden reoccurrence of previous injury Gradual reoccurrence of pervious injury 4. How did this injury occur? Batting Running between wickets Bowling Fielding Catching Throwing Wicket keeping 5. Where did this injury occur? Match Nets Warm up stretches General training (cross) If other, please specify (E.G. Sports other than cricket, not related to sports, work related etc) 6. What month of the season did this injury occur in? Apr-2008 May-2008 Jun-2008 Jul-2008 Aug-2008 Sep-2008 Out of season 7. How many matches did you miss as a result of this injury? None 1 3 4 6 6 8. How long did it take before you were able to return to training after this training? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks 9. How long did it take before you were able to return to playing after this injury? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks INJURY 4 1. Please tick the most appropriate box to describe this injury. Head, neck or face Fractured facial bones Eye injury Cut Other Neck Injury Muscle injury Other Shoulder Muscle/tendon injury Dislocation / subluxation Other Elbow/arm Fracture Muscle injury Other Wrist palm Dislocation / fracture Split webbing Other Thumb Injury Dislocation / fracture Other Fingers Fracture Other Trunk Abdominal /side strain Other Back Lumbar spine stress fracture Other Groin, hip or buttock injury Muscle injury Other Thigh muscle injury Hamstring muscle injury Calf muscle strain Knee Bony injury Cartilage injury Other Shin and foot Stress fracture Other Other injury not noted above (please specify injury site) 2. Have you injured this body part before? Yes No 3. What best describes the onset of this injury. Contact/sudden onset of new injury Gradual onset of new injury Sudden reoccurrence of previous injury Gradual reoccurrence of pervious injury 4. How did this injury occur? Batting Running between wickets Bowling Fielding Catching Throwing Wicket keeping 5. Where did this injury occur? Match Nets Warm up stretches General training (cross) If other, please specify (E.G. Sports other than cricket, not related to sports, work related etc) 6. What month of the season did this injury occur in? Apr-2008 May-2008 Jun-2008 Jul-2008 Aug-2008 Sep-2008 Out of season 7. How many matches did you miss as a result of this injury? None 1 3 4 6 6 8. How long did it take before you were able to return to training after this training? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks 9. How long did it take before you were able to return to playing after this injury? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks INJURY 5 1. What was the diagnosis of this injury? Please tick the most appropriate box to describe this injury. Head, neck or face Fractured facial bones Eye injury Cut Other Neck Injury Muscle injury Other Shoulder Muscle/tendon injury Dislocation / subluxation Other Elbow/arm Fracture Muscle injury Other Wrist palm Dislocation / fracture Split webbing Other Thumb Injury Dislocation / fracture Other Fingers Fracture Other Trunk Abdominal /side strain Other Back Lumbar spine stress fracture Other Groin, hip or buttock injury Muscle injury Other Thigh muscle injury Hamstring muscle injury Calf muscle strain Knee Bony injury Cartilage injury Other Shin and foot Stress fracture Other Other injury not noted above (please specify injury site) 2. Have you injured this body part before? Yes No 3. What best describes the onset of this injury. Contact/sudden onset of new injury Gradual onset of new injury Sudden reoccurrence of previous injury Gradual reoccurrence of pervious injury 4. How did this injury occur? Batting Running between wickets Bowling Fielding Catching Throwing Wicket keeping 5. Where did this injury occur? Match Nets Warm up stretches General training (cross) If other, please specify (E.G. Sports other than cricket, not related to sports, work related etc) 6. What month of the season did this injury occur in? Apr-2008 May-2008 Jun-2008 Jul-2008 Aug-2008 Sep-2008 Out of season 7. How many matches did you miss as a result of this injury? None 1 3 4 6 6 8. How long did it take before you were able to return to training after this training? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks 9. How long did it take before you were able to return to playing after this injury? 1 Week 1-3 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6 Weeks For more than 5 injuries If you have had more than 5 injuries during the season, please add details (of injures not already mentioned)

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Struggle Of The Civil War - 1684 Words

After publishing Battle Cry of Freedom in 1988, Mcpherson decided to pursue a different path instead of everything about the Civil War he decided to reflect on the Civil War as seen through Drawn With The Sword published in 1996. Mcpherson decided to split Battle Cry Of Freedom into five different parts and each of those parts tying back to his five themes established in the preface of the book. Those themes being slavery being a polarizing issue that split the country and brought the war, evolution of a conflict from limited war for restoration of the old Union to a total war for a new birth of freedom, role of blacks in the war, political and military leadership, the enduring impact of the war on consciousness and institutions abroad as well as at home. Mcpherson managing to illustrate those themes expressed through 15 chapters divided in 5 chapters each section giving you an idea of the theme of the chapters to come. Slavery has been a major issue throughout the United States ever since introduced in 1619 and being highly encouraged once indentured servants were gone, the Columbian Exchange, and cash crops being on the rise in the South. Slavery being McPherson’s first theme in the preface, him expressing that theme throughout parts two, four, and one. Part one titled, â€Å"Origins of The Civil War† as seen in through exceptionalism in which the South possessed a separate and unique identity different from the rest of America. As William H. Seward, undermined,Show MoreRelatedThe Struggle Of The Civil War1492 Words   |  6 PagesTexans contend that the Civil War was not fought over slavery, citing the limited number of slave-owning households in the state. While the majority of Texans did not own slaves, it would be inaccurate to argue that they were therefore against slavery. Texas, representative of other southern states that supported slavery, had a vested interest in preserving the institution at all costs, which is why they risked their lives over it. Moreover, Texans may argue that the civil war was about states’ rightsRead MoreThe Struggle Of The Civil War919 Words   |  4 PagesThe Civil War lasted for only four years, from 1861-1865, but it led to many economic, political, and social developments that remained for far longer than the fighting. From 1860-1877, for example, many impactful events happened leading to the start and end of the war and into the rebuilding that was necessary after the fighting left behind devastation. In 1861, Fort Sumter was fired upon, and the north was angered into action causing Lincoln to call for soldiers to come and fight the south. AlongRead MoreThe Struggle Of The Civil War908 Words   |  4 Pagesera changing events occurred such as the civil war, death of our founding fathers among other events that really shaped America to what it is today. There were many dark times throughout this century as hope seemed to be lost and the thought of the north losing the civil wa r could not be fathom as today’s society would be drastically different. To this point in American history we have succeeded from England became independent and winning the revolutionary war, we have wrote our own declaration andRead MoreThe Struggle Of The Civil War1235 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War was fought over states rights and slavery, and whether slavery should be expanded into the western states. The compromises of 1820 and 50 was made to maintain the amount of free and slave states in Congress. Though with Lincoln’s election the southern states seceded due to the south believing he would abolish slavery, though only 1% of the south’s population owned slaves, however, most of the south was consumed by sectionalism which caused all of them to simply believe that slaveryRead MoreThe Struggle Of The Civil War1863 Words   |  8 Pagescrisis called the Civil War. The Civil War was a make or break situation for the United States because it questioned the idea that all men were created equally and had the same rights and freedoms as each other. This war was especially crucial to the slaves during this time for the idea that they wanted to be treated equally to the white man The African slaves saw this war as an opportunity of freedom, but that was not the only cause of the war. One major issue leading to the Civil War was the groupsRead MoreThe Struggle Of The American Civil War765 Words   |  4 Pages  The American Civil War, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy. Among the 34 states in January 1861, seven Southern slave states individually declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, simply called the South, grew to include eleven states. Although they claimed thirteen states and additional western territories, the Confederacy was never recognized byRead MoreThe Struggle Of The Russ ian Civil War1707 Words   |  7 PagesRussian Civil War On October, 1917, the Bolshevik party overthrew the Russian government and arrested him. They take control over Russia. From there, things start to not go really well because of the Bolsheviks policies. A chaos starts to begin a lot of people weren’t happy. The economy was bad, there was a great inflation. Also, they were having a lot of enemies. All these people who hated them start to come together and they formed a group which called the Whites. From there, the civil war startsRead MoreThe Struggle For Equality And Rights During The Civil War1323 Words   |  6 PagesAfrican Americans who sought the same liberty and equality that was promised to everyone under the United States constitution. These liberties, of course, were not achieved right away. During the Reconstruction era, which is the decade right after the Civil War, many of the recently freed slaves did not have money, property, or credit. They could not buy the necessary things to enjoy their freedom, which lead to sharecropping, a glorified form of slavery. Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in whichRead MoreSpanish Civil War: The Struggle Between Fascism and Communism 1431 Words   |  6 PagesThe Spanish civil war of 1936-1939 was an important conflict in Spain’s history. This war was initiated by a military revolt led by General Francisco Franco on the 17 July 1936 and ended with Franco’s victory on the 1 April, 1939. This victory resulted in the replacement of the Second Spanish Republic with the conservative dictatorship of Franco. This conflict triggered the clash of the various cultures and ideologies within Spain. One important example of an ideological clash was that of CommunismRead MoreEssay about Struggles in Post Civil War America1020 Words   |  5 PagesThe Civil War split the nation in half. It tore apart families, and Union soldiers against Confederate soldiers for four miserable years. From the first shots fired at Fort Sumter 1861, and end ing with a unanimous Confederate victory in 1865. All in all 630,000 people died and many thousands wounded. The deaths in the Civil War totally surpassed the death totals from any other war (1). For those managed to survive the up hill battle just began, they faced many unknowns in a world moving in an uncertain

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Murder Of Eating Meat - 999 Words

Whenever I go out to eat, I always comb through the menu for specific words: shark, snake, grizzly, etc. It s not that I don t like more standard dishes. I love a good steak as much as the next guy, but that sort of thing just doesn t excite me anymore. If I’m going to commit murder by eating meat, as the animal rights people say, I want my murder to count. I hunger for danger foods. By my definition, a danger food is any animal that can take me in a fair fight. The way I see it, if it could have killed me when it was alive, I get to eat it once it s dead. In fact, it s my civic duty to do so. For example, a shark could rip me apart with its rows of razor sharp teeth. Thus, I get to turn it into poop. The circle of life continues. A cow, while large enough to do some serious damage if it fell on me, is a stupidly docile animal. I could walk up to a cow and starting eating it right then and there, and it still wouldn t put up a fight until it was nothing but udder and hooves. Cheap fight, the steak. Chicken? For all the flapping and noise, the chicken is nonetheless a non-threatening creature. Pork? Pigs can eat a lot in a short amount of time, but they ll look right down the barrel of a gun and expect a candy treat. No real challenge, there. All of these are perfectly viable food options, but there s no real sport. They have no real tools with which to fight back. Crocodiles, bears, gorillas, elephants, tigers - God gave these animals sharp claws, jagged teeth,Show MoreRelatedShould We Eat Animals? Essay519 Words   |  3 Pages The question if humans should eat meat from animals has been argued over many years. Many people believe that it is wrong and many people believe that it is right. Two out of one hundred Americans are vegetarians (Langley 5). The number is even higher in other places, including India, where thirty-three out of one hundred people are vegetarians (Langley 5). All humans on the Earth should be consuming meat from animals . People who do not eat meat at all can miss out on important nutrientsRead MoreAnalysis on Gary Steiner ´s Animal, Vegetable, Miserable708 Words   |  3 PagesImagine sitting around eating you’re sitting in a restaurant eating your burger and you see a cow in the back. You might think was the cow that I’m eating mistreated? Or did they have a good quality life before they became my meal. This is why many decide to not eat meat at all because they fear what happened to that animal before it became their meal. Author Gary Steiner is an American moral philosopher, and Professor of Philosophy at Bucknell University. He explained this best in his paper AnimalRead MoreJustifying Murder - Original Writing1099 Words   |  5 PagesJustifying Murder I see the others at the table. Their pupils growing as they see the server bring the food toward the table; hungry for the pleasure that they lust for. Tapping feet. Watering mouths. The plates slam down on the table, the grease splatters near me giving off the scent of burnt iron. The texture is dark. The blood drips from the knife, used to butcher. The others dig in, sloppily getting the juices on their faces, the sheen of sauce on their lips shining in the reflection of my eyesRead MoreThe Production Of Animal Products For Human Consumption1077 Words   |  5 Pagesemissions, and is one of the biggest factors of climate change . Most consumers of meat and dairy are uninformed of this fact, as they believe that transportation and the burning of fossil fuels are the leading contributors towards global warming, and not the production of foods that they consume on a daily basis and in large quantities. However, the consumers are not the only ones to blame; in America, large meat and dairy corporations as well as the government are two forces that heavily advertiseRead MoreThe Impact Of Climate Change On Canada913 Words   |  4 Pagestrains, boats and airplanes combined. Let me make that absolutely crystal clear for you: If the entire world would completely stop using fossil fuels for any form of transportation; it would have less of an impact on the environment than to stop eating meat. While you and the government spend millions of dollars opening high-occupancy vehicle lanes all over Canada and encourage people to share a car every as much as possible to save the planet, never have I ever heard anything about agriculture. LivestockRead MoreImportance of the Gardens in The Sparrow Essay914 Words   |  4 PagesEmilios happiness, soul, or body. There was only so much food the group could bring with them on the lander. It was inevitable that they would eventually run out, especially when they found out they would probably be stuck on Rakhat. They tried eating the food on Rakhat, but they wanted to grow their own too. They wanted to grow the garden partly because of taste, but more for the health benefits. They asked for permission and it was granted. They went and retrieved the seeds Marc had decidedRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Vegetarianism1524 Words   |  7 Pagesmultiply with growing wealth and culture (Leahy et al 2). A vegetarian nourishment may play an advantageous role in health and avoiding obesity. Vegetarianism encompasses a spectrum of eating patterns: from people who wish to be known as ‘vegetarians regardless including some animal meat in their meals, but meats products should be omitted such as fish and fowl from a vegetarian dish (Lea and Worsley 505). Even though some people may be in contradi ction of vegetarianism, it is a lifestyle and aRead MoreVegetarian Diet or Eat Meat?1672 Words   |  7 PagesVegetarian Diet or Eat Meat? The decisions we make greatly influences our way of living, how we move in our environment, and how other people see us. The same goes for eating. Plants, fungi, bacteria, and animals which includes us humans – every living being in this world need food to survive. Plants undergo through the process of photosynthesis to make starch. Both bacteria and fungi secrete enzymes that digest nutrients after decomposition. After that, we, the family of animals, hunt and scoutRead MoreEthics : Ethics And Ethics1485 Words   |  6 Pagesapplied to modern ethical dilemmas. The Sacred Texts of Hinduism, the Vedas provide adherence with guidance, whilst morality is taught and emphasised throughout teachings of Hindu Scripture. For instance the scripture, Ramayana prohibits adherents of murder, theft, adultery and the consumption of alcohol as it portrays such acts as impure, immoral and essentially unethical. Whilst promoting equality, kindness, respect to all life and the practice of vegetarianism. The Vedas form the foundation and authorityRead MoreAnimal Food Chains Should Be Banned995 Words   |  4 PagesAntibiotics, meat fillers, and pink mixtures of multiple animal bones and carcasses are used to make a single fast food hamburger. Animal based products in the fast food industry have been replicated and manipulated for many years, hence the inexpensiveness. These products include eggs, meat, cheese, and milk. Consuming the additives can lead to detrimental affects to one’s health. Also, specific religious practices such as Islam, Christiani ty, Hinduism, and Buddhism follow the notion of ‘Though

Process Improvement Methods and Proposal free essay sample

Ideally, service level requirements are ultimately determined by business requirements (Langabeer, 2008). Analyze scheduling and controlling techniques with regard to the effect of service availability on the ED bottlenecks First, a comparison of the measurements of what is used of the emergency department with the organizations objectives must be completed. This provides the basic indication of whether the system has adequate capacity. Next, the organization must check the utilization of the various resources of the department.This analysis identifies highly used resources that may cause the bottleneck in the present or in the future. Look at the resource utilization for each workload. Determine which workloads are the major users of each resource. This helps narrow attention to only the workloads making the greatest demands on department resources. Determine where each workload is spending its time by analyzing the components of response time, allowing the organization to determine which system resources are responsible for the greatest portion of the response time for each workload (Langabeer, 2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Process Improvement Methods and Proposal or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Once the analysis is complete, the schedule for the employees can be adjusted to ensure that the resources of employees are utilized in the most efficient way. Split shifts and part time hours may be needed in order to ensure the organization is meeting its goals. Make recommendations on staffing or alternative sources of care Most of the complaints result from long waits for care and poor service. These complaints can be solved if the ED adopts certain recommendations on staffing or alternative sources of care.The hospital must schedule staffing to equal the capacity of patients needing to receive care. After collecting and analyzing the data, the ED can determine how many more staff to schedule between the hours of 6:00 p. m. and 10:00 p. m. Each staff member should be able to attend to at least two patients within an hour. This will help the workflow of staff treating patients. Changing shifts right at 6:00 p. m. can be a problem because staffing currently working is more worried about getting ready to leave than giving care to patients.Another problem is staffing getting ready to start their shifts. It takes time for them to get settled and their affairs in order. This causes patients to wait even longer. A good recommendation would be to have shift changes at 5:00 p. m. This will give the night shift enough time to get settled and ready for the workload ahead. The ED can also end customer complaints by dividing the department into sections of care. For example, patients with non-life threatening problems could see nurses and nurses’ assistants to receive care. The ED can place at least two doctors in this selection.Patients with life threatening problems could see doctors and nurses in another selection of the department. Dividing care could help reduce wait time among patients and reduce poor customer service. Although these are minor recommendations, they can help the ED decrease the amount of complaints received from patients. Scheduling the right amount of staff can help the department’s workflow as well as dividing the department into sections for care. Conclusion The Six Sigma Team has evaluated the situation at the Middletown Hospital Emergency Department.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Obstacles in the Society to Accept the Change

Introduction Many societies are changing at a very high rate in the modern world. This has been triggered by the increasing rate of globalization, which has transformed the world into a global village. The changes taking place in the society has also been triggered by the improvement in the level of technology. Due to these developments, different societies have become more integrated hence triggering the change process.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Obstacles in the Society to Accept the Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite of this integration, there still remain many factors that have been hindering the change process in the society. In Saudi Arabia, change has been taking place at a slow rate due to the obstacles that tends to discourage people from accepting change. Social change significantly depends on the will of individuals to accept change. Although some people accept change easily, it has been discovered that something inside them will always tempt them to reject change. Over the past years, several studies have been conducted on change taking place in the society. However, little attention has been paid as to why people reject change. People tend to oppose change rather than the change process. People may be willing to undergo the change process but they reject change. Discussion The rate at which the society accommodates change is determined by how the people are receptive to change. Since changes in society come along with transformations of the existing systems, members of the society do not easily accept change. People will always be reluctant to leave their original way of life. Over the world history, it has been observed that many changes in the society have taken place through dictates of the government. Majority of people are not always ready to accept change naively. In other words, change in many societies has been faced by a number of obstacles t hat has resulted in an extremely slow rate of change. In some cases, a small group of elites may induce change in the society that comes along with cultural innovation. Gender Factors One of the major obstacles that are posing a significant barrier to change in Saudi is the gender inequality. Gender inequality is one of the major obstacles that have been hindering change in many societies. For instance, majority of the Saudis are still clinging on the misconception that men and women should not work side by side.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many men in Saudi Arabia, for instance, could not be satisfied by being interviewed by a woman (Butters, 2009). This is because women are looked down upon by a significant section of the society. Many people are still convinced that women are incapable and that they should not be given critical positions in the society. This pose s a major barrier to change in Saudi Arabia. Most of men in Saudi Arabia, for instance, are surprised to see a woman holding a position of authority (Butters, 2009). Such people pose a major barrier to changes in the society because they tend to be conservative. They are irritated by any slight change in the society. Although women are gradually getting to top positions in the society, this is taking place at a very slow pace. The rights of women and men still remain significantly different. For instance, the few women who are managers of Shura do not have equal voting rights with their fellow men (Butters, 2009). Therefore, their chance to make contributions and views is limited. Cultural Factors Naturally, man is suspicious and tends to refrain from adopting new things like technology, beliefs, relationships, methods, systems or behavior (Sharma, 1997). People will therefore tend to conserve their old ways of life, customs, and traditions. They can only accept change if they are a dequately educated on the need for change in order to convince them on the importance of such changes to the society. Although they are sometimes convinced to accept the change process, they may be reluctant to accept change. Culture is one of the strongest forces that direct people’s behavior in the society. People are usually directed by their cultural arrangements in their day to day activities. Cultural aspects are difficult to change especially in the society that is led by ethnocentrism, that is, the society where people believes that their culture is superior to others. The people tend to uphold their values and superiority of their culture. In such a community, it becomes very difficult to facilitate change.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Obstacles in the Society to Accept the Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Saudi Arabia, culture is the major factor that is posing a foremost b arrier to changes in the society. Saudis usually tend to conserve their traditional ways of life. They are determined to retain their existing beliefs and customs. People are also determined to retain their religious beliefs. As a result, significant changes in the society have been blocked. As a result of deep cultural entrenchment, people restrains from trying new things in order to avoid losing their face. Therefore, people are determined to follow the existing arrangements in order to avoid any kind of embarrassment that can result in them losing face. Closely related to cultural factors are people’s values. Most people in the society are usually led by prejudice in judging change. Majority use their already internalized traditions in judging the outcomes. In Saudi, people’s values have posed a major obstacle to the social change. In this case, even when the change is advantageous to the entire society, people are always seeing the negative side of it. For instance , instead of seeing the development contributions that will be achieved by empowering women, men are forced to believe that empowering women is undermining men. In this case, their decisions are led by prejudice rather than fairness. Traditionalism convinces the people to believe that everything that takes place in the society is the will of supernatural powers and that it cannot be changed. This conviction has posed a major barrier to the social change (Tarnate, 2011). Through such convictions, people are forced to believe that the existing arrangements cannot be changed by human effort. This belief has obstructed the change in the Saudi Arabian society. Through traditionalism, many people are forced to believe that they cannot facilitate change in the organisation. For example, many women are convinced that they don’t have the capability to get equal rights with the men. This has undermined the change process in Saudi. Cultural backgrounds pose a major obstruction to change in the Saudi Arabia society. Culture is one of the main factors that have a strong influence in the society. It is a powerful determinant of the social change.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most Saudi Arabian rulers are using religion as an excuse for the slow pace of the social change in Saudi Arabia (Butters, 2009). For instance, most religious views are denying women the opportunity to attain opportunities equal to those enjoyed by men. This has been a mentality passed from one generation to another. The above discussion has clearly revealed that culture plays a pivotal role in obstructing change in the society. In order for change to take place effectively, society must be ready to renew its cultural aspects. Similarly, there is a need for culture change in Saudi in order to promote social change in the country. However, cultural changes in the society usually take place slowly. According to Sharma (1997), cultural change usually begins by a small fraction of the society realizing that they are unable to meet certain cultural expectations. Change in a certain cultural background can be effected through a number of ways. First, a group or an individual who has been adversely affected by a certain stress builds an idealized image of a culture goal that usually contrasts the existing arrangements (Foley, 2010). The individual then communicates the idea to others especially those who are adversely affected by the situation. For instance, this may be a certain marginalized group in the society where the social arrangements and requirements may be too demanding for them. In Saudi, women are one of the marginalized groups in the society. Women are denied equal opportunities with men. This have put pressure in a certain fraction especially the educated women who has been denied opportunities because of their gender. This has resulted in gender equality movements whose main aim is to promote gender equity. The most affected group has been communicating to others to advocate for change. However, this is taking place at very slow rate in Saudi Arabia (Butters, 2009). Once communication takes place, a group advocating for change in the society organizes itself and attracts the people who are converted to accept the new ideas. In case the organized group gets adequate support from the society, the change is then implemented effectively. However, this is not always the case. When the organized change in culture is rejected significantly, culture transfer takes place instead. In Saudi Arabia, lack of support from the society is the major factor that is undermining change. Although various groups like women movements are organized to promote change in Saudi Arabia, the process usually fails due to lack of adequate support. Therefore, change in Saudi has been taking place at an extremely slow rate. Social Factors In Saudi, the society has been dominated by conservatism. This has characterized many institutions; the fact that has obstructed the change process. Some social arrangements are opposing to the change process. In Saudi, people are grouped into two groups, the ruling class and the working class. This system has to some extent be en denying people democracy. Therefore, these arrangements must be restructured in order to promote change in the society. Political Factors Political barrier is another form of barriers that are hindering change in Saudi. These involve institutions like the forms of state, politics, power, and the nature of government (Haddad and Esposito, 1998). For instance, the Saudi Arabia government has been acting very slowly to the issue of gender inequality. The government has not effectively dealt with the issue of gender inequality. Although women can now access powerful positions, they are denied equal powers with their fellow men in the same level. Some forms of politics are hindering the change process. For the society to experience change, these institutions must be changed. Economic Factors Economic factors are another category of obstacles that pose a major challenge to social change in Saudi Arabia. Unemployment and poverty are the key factors that hinder the change in the society. In Saudi, the rich and the capitalists are a major obstacle to change. In most cases, this group has the fear that any change in the society will undermine their interests. Therefore, such people will always defend the existing systems because they are beneficial to them. In order to eliminate this problem, the government must be in a position to promote equality among the people by promoting equal access to economic resources. The government must also promote education for all the people. This will promote equality among the people. Problems in communication are also another possible factor that hinders change within the society. This has to do with the language. For instance, words or phrases that mean good in one society may have an opposite meaning in another. Difference in perception is also another factor that has hindered change in the Saudi Arabian society. Different people are led by unique perceptions. In this case, it becomes very difficult for such people to reach to a consensus. Differences in perceptions have also led to incompatibility of the domestic values with the foreign values. In Saudi Arabia, people have their unique perceptions that significantly determine their actions. Therefore, the process of change has been very slow. People are not easily receptive to foreign values because they have their own perceptions. For instance, people tend to strictly resist foreign values that oppose their perceptions. Promoting change in Saudi Arabia Despite of the many factors that has been hindering change in Saudi Arabia, several measures has been undertaken in order to promote change in the country. For instance, the government is encouraging change by expanding education availability to both men and women. The government has also been organizing programs to protect the women and children from domestic abuse. The human right activists and feminists in Saudi Arabia are also promoting change although at a very slow rate. In order to promote the necess ary change in Saudi’s society, it is important to educate the society on the need for adopting new arrangements. For instance, people can be advised on the importance of promoting equal gender opportunities in order to optimize on social benefits. Such efforts will promote cultural changes in the Saudi’s society. Conclusion This discussion has clearly revealed the obstacles that face the Saudi’s society to accept change. One of the major factors that are obstructing change in the society is culture. People are not ready to accept the new technologies, customs, and beliefs that tend to go against the existing arrangements. This has significantly undermined change in the Saudi’s society. This discussion has also revealed that the society will always tend to retain the existing traditions and customs. These perceptions in Saudi have significantly undermined changes in the society. Although some changes are taking place gradually in the society, they are taki ng place at a very slow rate. However, change can be promoted by educating the people on the need for change in the society. This will help them to realize the importance of replacing the new systems, traditions, and other cultural aspects with the new ones. Reference List Butters, A. (2009). Saudi’s Small Steps. The International South Pacific Edition, 174 (15), 22. Foley, S. (2010). Gender and Social Change in the Twenty-First Century Gulf. Web. Haddad, Y. and Esposito, J. (1998). Islam, Gender, Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press. Sharma, R.K. (1997). Social Changes and Social Control. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers Dist. Tarnate, J.L. (2011). Stimulants and Barriers of Social Change. Web. This research paper on Obstacles in the Society to Accept the Change was written and submitted by user Sonia Whitney to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Exercise and Pm Physical Education Essay Example

Exercise and Pm Physical Education Essay Example Exercise and Pm Physical Education Paper Exercise and Pm Physical Education Paper Arnis is a Filipino martial art that can be performed individually or with a partner, using a single stick or a pair of sticks for striking and blocking; it may also be used for self-defense. This module will allow me to learn the fundamental skills of Arnis through lessons that are presented in the order that they will be taken up in class. This will allow me to follow closely and participate actively in all the learning activities. Self- and peer evaluation will be used to monitor my progress and check how proficient I have become. A set of rubrics will be used for this purpose, which I can also use to help me identify  and correct my classmate’s errors, if there are any present. Appropriate warm-up, stretching and cooldown exercises will be routinely performed to make sure that my body is physically ready for the days lessons and to prevent any injury from occurring. As the lessons progress, my fitness level will 1 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module also be monitored. Conducting regular fitness checks will enable me to be more conscious about my health and lifestyle. Also, having proper fitness will allow me to perform the drills in class with ease. LEARNING COMPETENCIES At the end of this module, I will be able to: 1. Practice the skills learned in this course with few observable errors in technique. 2. Execute with confidence the fundamental skills of Arnis. 3. Understand the rules, conventions and terminology in Arnis by using them during the execution of skills. 4. Perform the warm-up, stretching and cool-down exercises properly and on my own. 5. Determine my fitness levels and identify areas for improvement. 6. Be open to criticism when a peer is evaluating my performance, and at the same time, be critical and fair when evaluating others. 7. Be honest and fair at all times. 8. 2 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module SESSION 1 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 5 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, I have assessed my skill-related fitness. Skill-related physical fitness (SRPF) consists of components that have a relationship with learning motor skills quickly and the ability to achieve a high level of performance in sports. This quarter, I am going to learn the fundamental skills in Arnis. I know that I will be able to improve my motor skills with practice so that I am able to strike and block well; and quickly shift my body while maintaining balance. Practicing these skills will therefore help me become more fit. PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of three (3) parts: first,  the routine warm-up and dynamic stretching exercises; second, the basic skills in grip and body stance, and third, the cool-down routine. ? The tasks include: ? Performing warm-up and dynamic stretching exercises. ? Learning the fundamental skills in Arnis: 1. Holding the stick with the proper grip. 3 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module 2. Familiarizing oneself with the basic stance and salutation. ESSION 1 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 5 MINUTES GENERAL WARM-UP 1. Jog for 1 minute. 2. Side shuffle (left foot leading) for 20 seconds. 3. Side shuffle (right foot leading) for 20 seconds. 4. Carioca (left foot leading) for 10 seconds. 5. Carioca (right foot leading) for 10 seconds. 6. Butt kicks for 10 seconds. 7. High knees for 10 seconds. Side Shuffle High kicks Knees Carioca DYNAMIC STRETCHING 1. Knee hug to calf raise 2. Single leg deadlift 3. Lunge and twist 4 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Butt Physical Education Learner’s Module 4. Toe touch APPLICATION 20 MINUTES FUNDAMENTAL SKILLS 1. Grip: Proper hold of the stick ? Hold the stick one fist away from the punyo (butt) of the stick. Close the grip with the thumb. 2. Basic Stance and Salutation Handa ? Feet are positioned shoulder width apart. ? Stick is held in front of the body. Pugay ? ? Place the weapon hand  across the chest. Bow by bending at the waist. Handa sa Paglaban/Fighting Stance ? ? ? 5 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM One foot in front (foot the same as the weapon hand), the other foot on the rear Keep feet apart, distance of one foot. Both knees slightly bent Physical Education Learner’s Module ? ? Toes facing forward Weight evenly distributed on both feet ? Distance of 5 steps between the feet. Back leg kept straight, rear foot is held at a 45 degree angle. Keep the front knee bent. Weight is evenly distributed on both feet. Forward Stance ? ? ? Backward Stance ? ? ? ? Distance of 4 steps between the feet. Both knees are slightly bent. Rear foot held at a 90 degree angle. 70% of the body weight on the rear foot while 30% is placed on the front foot. COOL-DOWN: Static Stretching Exercises 1. Wrist (fingers down, up, forward) 2. Finger stretch 6 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module 3. Overhead stretch 4. Chest stretch 5. Triceps 6. Cross elbow 7. Zipper ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES Using the rating scale below, I can assess my performance on the following skills accordingly: Rating: I I can practice the skill by myself. O I can practice the skill with others’ 7 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module help. I will just wait for the next PE class. W RATING SESSION 2 ACTIVITY Warm-up Dynamic stretching Grip Stance Static stretching INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 5 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, I have learned to properly hold (grip) the arnis stick and assume the proper stance. I have also learned how to perform the routine exercises for warm-up and cool-down. PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the twelve (12) striking techniques which are aimed at different parts of the body that are considered to be vulnerable. I will be learning how to perform the first five (5) techniques: ? Striking technique 1-Left side of the head attack ? Striking technique 2-Right side of the  head attack ? Striking technique 3-Left side of the trunk attack ? Striking technique 4-Right side of the 8 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module trunk attack ? Striking technique 5-Thrust to stomach SESSION 2 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 10 MINUTES GENERAL WARM-UP DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISES SESSION 2 APPLICATION 20 MINUTES STRIKING TECHNIQUES: Hitting vital points of the body as targets by means of slashing, stabbing and thrusting actions; all techniques are performed with a fighting stance ST1: Left side of the head attack ? Assume fighting stance ? Stick held at one o-clock; slashing action ? Free hand on chest  ST2: Right side of the head attack ? Assume fighting stance ? Stick held at eleven o’clock; slashing action ? Free hand on chest ST3: Left side of the body (trunk) attack ? Extend weapon hand ? Strike any part of the trunk between the shoulder and hip joints; slashing action against the outer part of the trunk 9 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module ST4: Right side of the body (trunk)attack ? Same as ST3 ST5: Thrust to solar plexus (stomach) attack ? Thrust weapon hand towards the target point (solar plexus) ? Follow-through with upward movement. COOL-DOWN: Static stretching exercises SESSION 2 ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES Using the rating scale below, I can assess my performance on the following skills accordingly: Rating: I I can practice the technique by myself. O I can practice the technique with others’ help. W I will just wait for the next PE class. RATING ACTIVITY Warm-up Dynamic stretching Grip Stance Striking techniques 1-5 Static stretching 10 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module PROCEDURES The lessons and activities in every session are presented using the following format: INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY: This contains a review of the previous lesson/activity and a preview of the lessons and activities that will  be taken up in the current session. SKILL DEVELOPMENT: The warm-up routine will serve as preliminary exercises before the introduction of the skill to be learned. APPLICATION: This explains the activity in detail so that I may be able to follow closely and participate actively in it. ASSESSMENT: This contains guides that will help me monitor myself before, during and after the lessons and the activities so I may know how well I am able to participate in class. SESSION 3 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 10 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, I learned how to perform the five (5) striking techniques: 11 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module left (1) and right (2) side of the head attack, left (3) and right (4) side of the trunk attack, and the thrust to stomach (5) attack. Using the following rating scale, I can assess how I performed the following techniques: 4 – Performed the technique with no or few observable errors 3 – Performed the technique with some errors but I am able to correct myself easily 2 – Performed the technique with some errors but I relied on other’s help 1– I need more practice to get it right RATING TECHNIQUE. Left side of the head attack Right side of the head attack Left side of the trunk attack  Right side of the trunk attack Thrust-to-stomach attack 12 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the remaining seven (7) of the twelve (12) striking techniques: ? Striking technique 6-Left chest stab ? Striking technique 7-Right chest stab ? Striking technique 8-Left knee strike ? Striking technique 9-Right knee strike ? Striking technique 10-Left eye poke ? Striking technique 11-Right eye poke ? Striking technique 12-Crown attack SESSION 3 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 5 MINUTES GENERAL WARM-UP DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISES SESSION 3 APPLICATION STRIKING TECHNIQUES: ST6: Left chest stab? Assume the fighting stance. ? Extend weapon hand forward, palm facing outward. ? Keep elbow up. ST7: Right chest stab 13 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM 20 MINUTES Physical Education Learner’s Module ? Assume fighting stance ? Scooping action ? Extend weapon hand forward, palm facing outward. ? Keep the elbow down. ST8: Left lower leg (knee/shin/ankle) strike ? Lower the body ? Extend weapon hand to hit any part of the lower leg between knee and ankle joint ? Palm upward ST9: Right lower leg ? Lower the body ? Extend weapon hand to hit any part of the lower leg between knee and ankle joint ? Palm downward ST10: Left eye poke? Assume fighting stance ? Extend weapon hand forward, palm facing outward ? Elbow down ST11: Right eye poke ?Assume fighting stance ? Extend weapon hand forward, 14 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module palm facing outward ? Elbow up ST12: Crown attack ? Hack against the top of the head COOL-DOWN: Static stretching exercises SESSION 3 ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES Using the rating scale below, I can assess my performance on the following skills accordingly: Rating: I I can practice the technique by myself. O I can practice the technique with others’ help. W I will just wait for the next PE class. RATING ACTIVITY Warm-up Dynamic stretching Grip Stance Striking techniques 1-5 Striking techniques 7-12 Static stretching ASSIGNMENT 1. Compute your heart rate given a MODERATE intensity exercise (minimum = 40% and maximum = 15 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module 55%). (Minimum) _____ bpm TO (Maximum) _____ bpm 2. Compute your heart rate given a VIGOROUS intensity exercise (minimum = 60% and maximum = 85%). (Minimum) _____ bpm TO (Maximum) _____ bpm SESSION 4 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 15 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, I learned how to perform the remaining seven (7) striking techniques: left (6) and right (7) chest attack; left (8) and right (9) knee attack; left (10) and right (11) eye attack, and the crown (12) attack. Using the following rating scale, I will assess how I performed the following techniques: 4 – Performed the technique with no or few observable errors 3 – Performed the technique with some errors but I am able to correct myself easily 2 – Performed the technique with some errors but I relied on other’s help 16 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module 1– I need more practice to get it right RATING TECHNIQUE Left chest stab Right chest stab Left knee strike Right knee strike Left eye poke Right eye poke  Crown attack PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the following tasks: ? Practice the striking techniques 112 ? Monitor my heart rate to determine the intensity of the exercises. SESSION 4 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 10 MINUTES DETERMINING MY HEART RATE AT REST 1. My partner signals the time for me to â€Å"start† and â€Å"stop† counting my pulse (radial or carotid) for 6 seconds. HEART RATE AT REST: _____ bpm 2. I now signal my partner to â€Å"start† and â€Å"stop† counting his/her pulse for 6 seconds. 17 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module GENERAL WARM-UP 1. Jog for 1 minute. 2. Side shuffle (left foot leading) for 20 seconds. 3. Side shuffle (right foot leading) for 20 seconds. 4. Carioca (left foot leading) for 10 seconds. 5. Carioca (right foot leading) for 10 seconds. 6. Butt kicks for 10 seconds. 7. High knees for 10 seconds. HEART RATE AFTER WARM-UP: _____ bpm DYNAMIC STRETCHING 1. Knee hug to calf raise 2. Single leg deadlift 3. Lunge and twist 4. Toe touch HEART RATE AFTERSTRETCHING: _____ bpm SESSION 4 APPLICATION 15 MINUTES STRIKING TECHNIQUES ST1: Left temple attack ST2: Right temple attack ST3: Left shoulder attack 18 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module ST4: Right shoulder attack ST5: Thrust-to-stomach attack  ST6: Left chest attack ST7: Right chest attack ST8: Left knee attack ST9: Right knee attack ST10: Left eye attack ST11: Right eye attack ST12: Crown attack 19 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module HEART RATE AFTER STRIKING: _____ bpm COOL-DOWN: Static stretching exercise HEART RATE AFTER COOL-DOWN: _____ bpm SESSION 4 ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES 1. Rank the following exercises accordingly: 1-most intense; 2-moderate; 3-least intense. EXERCISES HEART RATE RANK INTENSITY (bpm) General warm-up Dynamic stretching Striking techniques Cool-down 2. Identify the exercise intensity as moderate or vigorous (base it on your Session 3 assignment). SESSION 5 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 20 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, we monitored our heart rate while performing all of the exercises. We also practiced the following skills: grip, stance and the 12 striking techniques. PEER EVALUATION: Using the following rating scale, assess 20 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module YOUR PARTNER as s/he performs the following techniques: 4 – Performed the technique with no or few observable errors 3 – Performed the technique with some errors but is able to correct him/herself easily. 2 – Performed the technique with some errors but relied on my help1– Needs more practice to get it right RATING TECHNIQUE RATING TECHNIQUE Left side of the head Left chest Right side of the head Right chest Left side of the trunk Left knee Right side of the trunk Right knee Thrust-to-stomach Left eye RATED BY: DATE Right eye Crown PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the ten (10) blocking techniques which consist of parrying an opponent’s strike in defense. Blocking with balance and in the correct stance will enable me to counter-strike with equal efficacy. I will be learning how to perform the five (5) basic techniques: 21 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module  ? Blocking technique 1-Inward ? Blocking technique 2-Outward ? Blocking technique 3-Rising ? Blocking technique 4-Downward inward ? Blocking technique 5-Downward outward SESSION 5 APPLICATION 15 MINUTES BLOCKING TECHNIQUES: BT1: Inward ? Place free hand on the stick. ? From forward stance, shift body obliquely. ? Parry inward BT2: Outward ? Free hand rotates the stick downward. ? Shift body obliquely on the opposite side ? Parry outward. 22 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module BT3: Rising ? Hold the stick parallel to the ground, waist level. ? Push the stick upward, over the head. BT4: Downward inward? From fighting stance, shift to back stance. ? Lower the body ? Extend weapon hand, palm up. BT5: Downward outward ? From fighting stance, shift to back stance ? Lower the body ? Extend weapon hand, palm down ? COOL-DOWN: Static stretching exercises Quadriceps Calf Seated Hamstring 23 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Groin Physical Education Learner’s Module Wrist (fingers up, down, forward) Finger Overhead Cross 24 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Trunk Elbow Zipper Triceps Glute Physical Education Learner’s Module SESSION 5 ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES Using the rating scale below, I can assess my performance on the following skills accordingly: Rating: I O I can practice the technique by myself. I can practice the technique with others’ W I will just wait for the next PE class. help. RATING ACTIVITY Striking techniques 1-5 Striking techniques 6-12 Blocking techniques 1-5 Cool-down SESSION 6 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 10 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, we reviewed the 12 striking techniques and learned the five (5) basic techniques in blocking: inward (1), outward (2), rising (3), downward inward (4) and downward outward (5). PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the following tasks: Practice the following skills or techniques: 1. Striking techniques 1-12 2. Blocking techniques 1-10 ? Monitor my heart rate to determine the intensity of the exercises. 25 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module SESSION 6 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 10 MINUTES Determine heart rate at rest (6-second count): _____ bpm GENERAL WARM-UP 1. Jog for 1 minute. 2. Side shuffle (left foot leading) for 20 seconds. 3. Side shuffle (right foot leading) for 20 seconds. 4. Carioca (left foot leading) for 10 seconds. 5. Carioca (right foot leading) for 10 seconds. 6. Butt kicks for 10 seconds. 7. High knees for 10 seconds. HEART RATE AFTER WARM-UP: _____ bpm DYNAMIC STRETCHING 1. Knee hug to calf raise. 2. Single leg deadlift 3. Lunge and twist 4. Toe touch SESSION 6 HEART RATE AFTER STRETCHING: _____ bpm APPLICATION 15 MINUTES Striking techniques 1-12 HEART RATE AFTER STRIKING: _____ bpm 26 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module Blocking techniques 1-5 HEART RATE AFTER BLOCKING: _____ bpm Cool-down: Static stretching HEART RATE AFTER COOL-DOWN: _____ bpm SESSION 6 ASSESSMENT 5 MINUTES 1. Rank the following exercises accordingly: 1most intense; 2-moderate; 3-least intense. EXERCISES HEART RATE RANK INTENSITY General warm-up Dynamic stretching Striking techniques Blocking techniques Cool-down 3. Identify the exercise intensity as moderate or vigorous (base it on your Session 3 assignment). 27 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module SESSIONS 7 and 8 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY 10 MINUTES REVIEW: In our previous lesson, we rated our peer in the performance of the five (5) blocking techniques, and monitored our heart rates while performing the different exercises. PREVIEW: ? Today’s lesson consists of the following task: 1. Choreograph a 3 to 5-minute routine with a partner that combines the striking and blocking techniques which I have learned throughout the quarter. 2. Our routine will be rated by our teacher  using the following rubrics: a. Proper execution of techniques: ? Striking ? Blocking ? Stance and posture ? Body shifting b. Proper timing in the execution of technique c. Agility in moving the entire body to the proper position d. Proper coordination and continuous exchange between partners to show fluidity of movements e. Variety of techniques 28 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module The following rating scale shall be used: 1- No or only a few observable errors; performed with high level of confidence 2- Some errors in technique but are able to keep presence of mind and carry on; encourages partner  3- Some errors in technique; more comfortable in starting all over again or backtracking; may show impatience or frustration 4- Needs more practice; shows impatience or frustration SESSION 7 and 8 SKILL DEVELOPMENT 5 MINUTES GENERAL WARM-UP. 1. Jog for 1 minute. 2. Side shuffle (left foot leading) for 20 seconds. 3. Side shuffle (right foot leading) for 20 seconds. 4. Carioca (left foot leading) for 10 seconds. 5. Carioca (right foot leading) for 10 seconds. 6. Butt kicks for 10 seconds. 7. High knees for 10 seconds. STATIC STRETCHING EXERCISES 1. Wrist (fingers down, up, forward) 2. Fingers 3. Overhead 4. Trunk 29 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module 5. Triceps 6. Cross elbow 7. Zipper SESSION 8 APPLICATION 15 MINUTES CHOREOGRAPHY and PRACTICE SESSION 8 ASSESSMENT 10 MINUTES Rate your choreographed routine by checking the appropriate box: 1- No or only a few observable errors; performed with high level of confidence 2- Some errors in technique but are able to keep presence of mind and carry on; I encouraged/have been encouraged by my partner 3- Some errors in technique; more comfortable in starting all over again or backtracking; We may have gotten a bit impatient or frustrated with one another; 4- I/ We needed more time to practice; we  can do better next time 30 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module RATING 1 2 3 4 Execution of technique ? Striking ? Blocking ? Stance posture ? Body shifting Timing of strikes blocks Agility of movements Coordination Variety of techniques All photos of PE faculty members of the University of Asia and the Pacific were taken in April 2012 by Mr. Joshua Ben R. Villareal. These photos are his and the module authors’ (Stella Marie M. Urbiztondo and Anamaria Laudet S. Mangubat) sole property. Use of these photos outside of this module is allowed provided that the owners are properly acknowledged. 31 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM Physical Education Learner’s Module Bibliography American College of Sports Medicine (2010). ACSM’s health-related physical fitness assessment manual, 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Wolters-Kluwer/Lippincott Williams Wilkins. A. Mayfield (2006). Personal nutrition profile, 2nd edtion. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness Lifestyle Approach: CSEP- Health 7 Fitness Program’s Health-Related Appraisal and Counseling Strategy, 3rd ed. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1985). Physical activity and health: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (1995). Moving into the future: National standard for physical education. Boston, Virginia: WCB/McGraw-Hill. YMCA USA (2000). YMCA fitness testing and assessment manual, 4th edition. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. nlm. nih. gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/19917. jpg 32 10/19/2012 5:44:49 PM

Friday, February 28, 2020

Improve my english Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Improve my english - Essay Example Some of the types of learners include: auditory, visual, kinesthetic and tactile. I am definitely a visual learner because I tend to remember more of what I see rather than what I hear. More specifically, if there is an image drawn with the text, I tend to remember that text in association with that image. This means that I am better at grasping those difficult grammatical points which can be diagrammed or have some pictorial information written with them. I also tend to remember those grammar or language points which are available in the form of a video. Moreover, I like texts having a lot of pictures. This means that if I have to improve my English, then the dull novels would not do me any good as I would lose concentration easily. Instead I should go for magazines which are generally colorful. We all have our own learning styles and one should get accustomed to the learning style that is suitable for